Does CSL offer a way to flag attributes such as authors, publication dates,
and publication locations as surmised or inferred? I didn’t see anything in
In my field of early modern history, such details are often not supplied on
the book itself and must be guessed or inferred.
When they can be determined, such attributes are typically placed within
square brackets, sometimes with question marks when the attribution is
Here is a citation (or two actually) in a footnote from a book I’m currently
reading (italics in uppercase):
[F. K. Hunt], “A Few Facts about Matrimony,” in Charles Dickens, ed.,
HOUSEHOLD WORDS, 1 (1850), p. 374 (for authorship, see Anne Lohrli, comp.,
HOUSEHOLD WORDS [Toronto, 1973], p.319).
A writer couldn’t just stick brackets in an author field, for the first
book’s author should be “[Hunt, F. K.]” (and alphabetized without regard for
the brackets) in the bibliography.
For the second book, if the date and location each had brackets, we’d get
[Toronto], . (Even if a citation processor wasn’t smart enough to
combine these, it seems the CSL should make such combining possible.)